Vegetarian Research|Abstract


Vegetarian Research Vol. 20 (2019), pp. 1-4

Survey for Role of Ecological Production Programs of Urban Agriculture in Osaka on Food Material Supply

Kazuhiro Abe, Shuji Shiozaki, Shosaku Horiuchi, Michiko Katsukawa, Hitomi Fukuda

This study examined the survey for role of ecological production programs of urban agriculture in Osaka on the food material supply. Farmers who produce the organic agricultural products and special cultivated agricultural products are expected to have the high awareness of the food supply and food safety. In the Osaka ecological agricultural product certification programs that cultivates by using the pesticide and chemical fertilizer at less than 50% of the customary cultivation, the authentication area and number of certifiers have been increasing. New developments are being made from the consumer side by holding a recipe contest using these ecological agricultural products
Key words: food safety, ecological agricultural products, food material supply, organic agricultural products


Vegetarian Research Vol. 20 (2019), pp. 5-10

Taste Preference of Young People to Table Grapes for Eating and Factors Affecting the Evaluation

Kazuhiro Abe, Nobuo Achiwa, Shuji Shiozaki, Shosaku Horiuchi

This study examined the taste preference of young people to table grapes (TG) for eating and factors affecting the evaluation. The comprehensive evaluation of the whole TG in this experiment was 3.58, and revealing that TG are preferred fruits for young people. For males and females, the relationship between sweetness and total correlation coefficient, and the comparison between males and female revealed that males have a higher correlation coefficient between sweetness and overall, it is clear that males are more strongly using sweetness as a criterion for evaluation of TG than females. In the 18 varieties subjected to the sensory test, 'Kyoho' was the highest overall evaluation and ' Manicure finger' was the lowest. In three colors TG(black varieties 'Kyoho', red: 'Kaiji', green: 'Muscat of Alexandria') that have been widely consumed and experimented many times in this study, comprehensive evaluation of fruits above the average price was high, and differences in taste due to price differences were also recognized among these varieties. As for the all TG, the correlation coefficient of sweetness and overall tended to be lower as price of TG was higher.
Key words: sensory test, food materials, taste preference, table grapes, young people


Vegetarian Research Vol. 20 (2019), pp. 11-15

Effect of Chlorella Food on Folate Metabolism

Masaki Fujishima

This study was conducted in three male adults for one year to evaluate the effect of continuous intake of chlorella supplement 8 g/day on blood levels of folate, vitamin B12, and total homocysteine, and on expression of folate-methionine metabolism genes based on the characteristics of MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism. As a result, it was suggested that regardless of MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism, continuous intake of chlorella supplement is beneficial to increase serum folate and vitamin B12 levels and increases expression of SLC46 alpha-1 that is a proton-coupled folic acid transporter responsible for folate absorption in small intestine, ABCD4 responsible for transportation of vitamin B12 from inside the lysosome to cytoplasm, CBS that is an enzyme to convert homocysteine to cystathionine, and many folate-methionine metabolism genes, enhancing efficiency of folate metabolism.
Key words: chlorella, folate, MTHFR


Vegetarian Research Vol. 20 (2019), pp. 17-22

Edible Science Experiments for Vegetarian Students: Development of Microscale Ice Candy from Rainbow Herbal Tea -Investigating the Learning Effect

Yoko Sato, Hisataka Ohta

In this study, we tried to develop the new teaching materials in the science experiments with food for vegetarians. In secondary school education, a conventional experiment is conducted on the making of ice candy. However, this experiment is difficult to perform together with a commentary, especially because it is of the same duration as that of a whole school teaching hour, 50 minutes. Therefore, we developed a microscale ice candy using "the rainbow herbal tea" which shortened the time of the conventional experiment. After trialing it, we found that the microscale did indeed shorten the time of the experiment. Furthermore, we investigated its effectiveness in the learning of second grade lower secondary school students in the private and integrated, lower and upper secondary school systems. We used this sample group because it was considered that can development learn is possible. We demonstrated the experiment and followed it up with a questionnaire survey. We created the microscale ice candy using "the rainbow herbal tea". It also increased student understanding of the percentage concentration of mass, density, and acid-base indicators.
Key words: vegetarian, science education, kitchen science, freezing point depression, microscale experiments, rainbow herbal tea ice candy

Vegetarian Research Vol. 20 (2019), pp. 23-26

Survey on the Preference of Ingredients and the Perception of Vegetarians with Young People

Kazuhiro Abe, Shyuji Shiozaki, Shosaku Horiuchi, Michiko Katsukawa, Hitomi Fukuda

This study examined the preference of food ingredients with young people. Among the 20 ingredients surveyed, there were ingredients that were disliked for various reasons, but it was revealed that they were eaten without being unbalanced diet Fruit: 4.41 had the highest preference, followed by rice: 4.39, egg: 4.36, chicken: 4.36, and the lowest were legumes: 3.64, followed by milk: 3.73 and bacon: 3.95. Among vegetables, bitter gourd: 110 people were the least preferred, followed by celery: 94 and tomato: 65. Although food that is repellent was few, seven people in a subject repel the shrimp and crab and two people repel eggs, the reason was allergic. There were six subjects who avoided milk because the physical condition deteriorated. Regarding the recognition of vegetarians who avoid animal foods, the score was 4.15 which was high, but there were no vegetarians among those surveyed
Key words: young people, survey of preference, food materials, taste preference, perception of vegetarians


Vegetarian Research Vol. 20 (2019), pp. 27-29

Edible Science Experiments for Vegetarian Students: Making of Microscale Konjak by Traffic Signal Reaction

Yoko Sato, Hisataka Ohta

The main purpose of this study is to develop new teaching materials for vegetarian students'. Here, we tried to develop a new teaching material focusing on the use of calcium hydroxide in the production of konjak , which is known as vegetarian food.As a result, we found how to make microscale konjak in a short time while traffic signal reaction using Food Blue No. 2 (indigo carmine), glucose, and calcium hydroxide when teaching about gel in a high school chemistry class.
Key words: chemical experimentCtraffic signal reactionCvegetarianCFood Blue No. 2 (indigo carmine)Cmicroscale konjak


Vegetarian Research Vol. 19 (2018), pp. 1-8

Comparison of Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors between Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Adult Males

Masako Arashi, Keiko Nakamoto, Mikako Hayashida, Satoru Iwai, Mariko Watanabe

[Introduction] The purpose of this study was to compare the risk factors of metabolic syndrome between adult males who habitually consumed a vegetarian diet (VD: lacto-ovo vegetarian) and those who were non-vegetarian. [Method] The surveyed subjects comprised 57 male hospital workers. The subjects in the VD group consumed a vegetarian meal at the hospital cafeteria at least once per day. From December 2009 to February 2010, a dietary survey (FFQW 82) was conducted and clinical data were obtained from yearly medical check records. [Results] The mean ages of the VD and control groups were 44.9 and 48.3 years, respectively. The abdominal circumference of the VD group was 79.3 } 7.8 cm and that of the control group was 90.2 } 5.0cm, which was significantly lower (p < 0.001). Similarly, the body mass index of the VD group (21.4 } 4.8) was significantly than that of the control group (24.7 } 2.3) (p < 0.001). The clinical laboratory data showed that the mean serum activity of ƒÁ-glutamyl transpeptidase was significantly lower in the VD group (24.2 } 14.4 U/L) than in the control group (42.6 } 21.0 U/L) (p < 0.001). In addition, the energy intake was 1763 } 234 Kcal in the VD group and 1711 } 169 Kcal in the control group, and there was no significant difference between the groups. However, there were significant differences between the groups in the intakes of vegetable protein (VD group, 41.1 } 18.4 g; control group, 34.3 } 3.8 g) and dietary fiber (VD group, 12.9 } 2.8 g; control group, 11.4 } 1.9 g) (p < 0.01 in each case). [Discussion] The results suggested that the VD group had a lower abdominal circumference and body mass index than the control group. Thus, the habitual consumption of a vegetarian diet may be associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome in adult males.
Key words: metabolic syndrome, vegetarian diet


Vegetarian Research Vol. 19 (2018), pp. 9-17

Effects of a Vegetarian Diet on Nutrition Intake and Physique among Junior and High School Students Living in a School Dormitory

Masako Arashi, Satoru Iwai, Mariko Watanabe

This study aimed to examine the effects of a vegetarian diet on nutrition intake and physique among junior and high school students living in a school dormitory. The subjects were 356 vegetarian junior and high school students who provided written consent to participate in the study, and surveys of their physique, dietary intake, and lifestyle were conducted. The results showed that their intakes of K, Mg, Fe, and dietary fiber exceeded those of subjects in the same age range who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, while their height and weight were the same as the national average. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the subjects increased according to the school year from 18.7 at the first grade of junior high to 22.2 at the third grade of high school in boys. The BMI results indicated that a healthy physique was maintained among upper grades who had a long-term record of habitually consuming a vegetarian diet. The rates of underweight (BMI < 18.5) and obesity (BMI ? 25) were 17.7% and 12.7%, respectively, among high school boys, which were the almost the same as the national average levels. When we analyzed factors associated with BMI, we found a significant association with the tendency of the subject to self-assess their present weight. Additionally, both boys and girls were recognized to express a desire to be slim and have an incorrect perception of their own body.
Key words: school dormitory, vegetarian diet, junior and high school students, nutrition intake, physique


Vegetarian Research Vol. 19 (2018), pp. 19-27

A Pilot Study on the Effects of a Vegetarian Diet on the Equol Production Ability and Intestinal Bacteria of Female College Students

Masako Arashi, Shizue Oomori, Saya Endou, Satoru Iwai

This study aimed to determine the effects of consuming a vegetarian diet (VD) on the equol production ability and intestinal bacteria of young women. Between March to August 2017, 19 consenting female college students were enrolled into the study. Subjects were divided into a VD group and a control group, and the VD group consumed a vegetarian diet for 4 months. Their height, body weight, food intake (FFQW82 questionnaire), feces samples, and urine samples were collected before and after the dietary intervention. The subjects' nutrient intakes were the same before and after the intervention, except that the VD group had a significantly decreased intake of animal protein (p < 0.001). The VD group had a significantly higher abundance of Bifidobacterium bacteria (p < 0.01), while the control group had a significantly higher total number of bacteria (p < 0.001) and a significantly higher abundance of Clostridium bacteria (p < 0.05). After the intervention period, the equol productivity of the VD group was 55.6%. Three subjects in the VD group and none in the control group produced more equol after the intervention. The three subjects who exhibited enhanced equol production showed significantly lower intakes of fish and meat proteins than the other subjects in the VD group (p < 0.01). Taken together, the results suggested that consuming a VD may alter the intestinal bacterial composition and increase the equol production ability of young women.
Key words: vegetarian diet, equol, soy isoflavone, young female


Vegetarian Research Vol. 19 (2018), pp. 31-33

Trends in Animal Ethics Considered from the Viewpoint of Vegetarianism Koichi Hashimoto

The response to vegetarians and the animal welfare from an international perspective are strongly recognized before the Tokyo Olympics and Paralympic Games in 2020. While introducing topics concerning the ethical consideration of animals, the author organizes the research on animal rights and animal liberation theory in traditional ethics related with animal welfare and also the author describes the idea of how to think about the consideration for animals in the future. From the viewpoint of vegetarianism, the author intends to focus on "Consideration for Suffering" from Peter Singer's utilitarianism and also to consider the thought of Jeremy Bentham as its roots.
Key words: vegetarianism, veganism, animal ethics, animal rights, animal liberation, animal welfare, utilitarianism


Vegetarian Research Vol. 17 (2016), pp. 1-7

Newest Vegetarian Nutrition|Soybean is a Good Protein Source|

Mitsuru Tsuchida*

For vegetarians who avoid consuming animal-derived foods, soybeans are an important protein source. In 2016, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations launched a campaign to reduce the consumption of meat and increase that of pulses, called the 'International Year of Pulses 2016'. This paper specifies the protein content and other ingredients of soybeans, and discusses their health-promoting effects, including those of soy products, consumption in countries with a higher life expectancy, and expected roles in addressing global population and food problems, covering topics raising questions about such effects. In order to help other countries resolve their environmental and health problems, it is necessary for us to actively introduce traditional Japanese soy food culture to them, while developing new ideas for soybean processing and cooking

*Aichi Mizuho University, Aichi, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 17 (2016), pp. 9-16

A New Attempt of Vegetarian Education from the Point of View of Science Education \Making of the Scientific Vegetable Salads by the Kitchen Science\

Yoko Sato*, Hisataka Ohta

In this study, we will provide junior high school students with opportunities to learn about vegetarian, vegan, lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian defined by the International Vegetarian UnioniIVUj by conducting science education in consideration of health promotion from a long-term perspective. We examined the method of providing. And, we were able to create vegetable salads, cottage cheese, poached eggs and dressings that can be science educated. Here, we developed teaching materials that can learn about plant taxonomy and degeneration of proteins and characteristics of polar solvent and nonpolar solvent. As a result of implementing the lesson using the teaching materials developed in this research, the recognition of second grade junior high school students on vegetarian, vegan, lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian significantly increased.
Key words: vegetarian education, science education, vegetarian, vegan, lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian

*Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 17 (2016), pp. 17-19

A New Attempt of Vegetarian Education from the Point of View of Science Education |How to Plan the Tea Time for Vegans by Kitchen Science|

Yoko Sato*, Hisataka Ohta

@In this study, we examined the practices of possible vegetarian education from @the point of view of science education. We have challenged the development of @teaching materials for the vegan. As a result, we succeeded in the development @of edible teaching materials. For example, we were able to introduce the teaching @materials that can learned beverages and confectioneries about the structure of flowers, @veins of leafs, and the cleavage procedure model of flog.
Key words: vegan, science education, veins of a leaf, structure of flower, cleavage procedure model of flog

*Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 17 (2016), pp. 21-23

Development of the New Teaching Materials which Thought about Allergic Correspondence in the Chemical Experiments with Food|Making of the New Emulsification Type Condiment Using Ingredients Substituting for the Egg|

Yoko Sato*, Hisataka Ohta

@In this study, we tried to develop the new teaching materials which thought about allergic correspondence @in the chemical experiments with food. Here, we proposed teaching materials to replace the experiments @of making mayonnaise from eggs. And, we proposed two emulsified seasonings using soymilk and powdered @green tea. When analyzed by immunochromatography, it was negative for ovalbumin, which is the major @allergen of eggs. Therefore, it is suggested that if this method is well-known, it raises the possibility @of being implemented more safely than it is now.
Key words: chemical experiment, egg allergy, soy milk, new teaching materials, powdered green tea emulsion

*Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 16 (2015), pp. 1-12

Creating a New Vegan Diet Culture through the Restoration ofWashoku (Japanese Cuisine):
a Proposal forgThe Balance Sheet of Food and Lifeh Based on Yin-Yang Theory
Yumiko Otani (Yumiko Tubu-Tubu)*


A traditional grain based diet (Tubu-Tubu Future Food) suggests a new approach to vegan and vegetarian cuisine. Based on the wisdom and techniques of Washoku (Japanese cuisine), which has survived for over twenty centuries, this diet was creatively constructed without destroying the system of Washoku. It enables not only a physiologically but also a psychologically balanced, healthy, and morally rich vegan life by correcting unbalanced dietary practices and reexamining the adverse effects of focusing on modern dietetics. gThe Balance Sheet of Food and Lifeh is the reference guideline for healthy food and a healthy body and it shows the yin-yang and acid-alkali balance.
Keywords: Balance sheet of food and life, Yin-yang theory, Vegan, Vegetarian, Traditional grain based diet (Tubu-Tubu Future Food)

*Fu Future Living Laboratory, Inc., Tokyo, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 15 (2014)

The Consideration for Medical Articles about Vegetarian Diet in 2014
Tomohisa Miyagi*
pp. 1-6

This review is a consideration for the medical articles about vegetarian diets in 2014 . In Pubmed, there are 55 papers published in 2014 about vegetarian diet. Five papers were selected from among them because of the important content. In 2014, it is the same medical perspective as before that vegetarian diet is beneficial for health by being appropriately planned considering nutrition such as vitamin B12.

Key words: Vegetarian Diet, Mortality, Risk Ratio, Cardiovascular disease, cancer, Vitamin B12

*Graduate School of MediceneA, University of the Ryukyu, Okinawa 903-0125, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 13 (2012)

Characteristics of Pickles Made from Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. eMizunasuf), a Vegetable Indigenous to Osaka
Keiko Kaetsu*, Kazuhiro Abe
pp. 1-4

eMizunasuf, of the Osaka convention kind, is cultivated around the Senshuu area of Osaka, and pickles made from eMizunasuf are popular with consumers. Sensory testing of pickles in liquid and pickles with rice bran made from eMizunasuf and eSenryof that was the cultivar of the eggplant eaten widely was carried out and compared, to clarify the seasoning characteristic of pickles made from eMizunasuf. For pickles in liquid, eMizunasuf had superior appearance, texture, sweetness and the general evaluation about the taste to eSenryof. Its sourness was less, and the flavor was the same. Its taste had an equilateral association with appearance, texture and flavor. For pickles with rice bran, eMizunasuf was superior in appearance, texture, sweetness and flavor to eSenryof, and its sourness was lower. Its taste had an equilateral association with texture, sweetness and flavor. Pickles in liquid were superior in the general evaluation about the taste to pickles with rice bran made from eMizunasuf and from eSenryof. Pickles made from eMizunasuf are more popular with female than male. As a result, eMizunasuf were generally popular with consumers, because pickles made from eMizunasuf were superior to pickles made from eSenryof in appearance and texture, and their sweetness and flavor were strong, whereas their sourness was weak.

Key words: eggplant, eMizunasuf, pickle in liquid, pickle with rice bran, sensory test

*Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka, Prefectural Government,442 Shakudo, Habikino 583-0862, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 13 (2012)

Effect of Combination of Electrolyzed Acidic Water and Ultrasonic Vibration Treatment on the Microorganisms of Fresh-cut Cabbages
Kazuhiro Abe*, Keiko Kaetsu, Nobuo Achiwa
pp. 5-8

In this research, the bactericidal effect of a combination of electrolyzed acidic water (EAW) treatment and another treatment (ultrasonic vibration treatment or intercellular space substitution) was examined by using fresh-cut cabbages of different shapes (2 cm square sections, 1 cm square sections, and shredded sections). The disinfection effect of EAW dipping treatment was found most significant on the shredded sections, followed by the 1 cm square sections, then the 2 cm square sections. This result shows that the bactericidal effect is attributed to disinfection not of the cuticular layer but of the cut surfaces of the sections. It was demonstrated that the disinfection effect is increased by adding ultrasonic vibration during EAW dipping treatment or by substituting air in the intercellular space of the sections with EAW.

Key words: electrolyzed acidic water, ultrasonic vibration, fresh-cut cabbages, microorganisms

*Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 13 (2012)

Survey on Daily Intake of Red Meats and Present State of Vegetarian in Principal City, Mongolia
Masahiro Nakagawa*, Akinori Takai, Mitsuru Kakimoto
pp. 9-13

To understand the current situation of the diet in Mongolia, we investigated the daily intake of animal foods by a questionnaire in 140 examinees (59 men, 71 women, and 10 unknown) aged 16-63. The daily intakes of red-meats and milks were more than 80% and 60%, respectively. The ratio of the intake of red-meats was high in both male and female. Lacto-ovo vegetarian was 1.5%. Those who avoid the intakes of red meats, chicken, fish and shellfish, egg, and milks were 32.9%, 15.7%, 17.9%, 7.1%, and 4.3%, respectively. Many of the reasons why they did not eat animal foods were for health (46.4%). These results suggested that the difference is previous between their behaviors and consciousness in intake of red meats.

Key wordFanimal food intake, lacto-vegetarian, modern food culture

*Wetlands International Japan, 3-7-3 Ningyocho Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku Tokyo 103-0013, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 13 (2012)

Influence of Blanching on the Contents of Water Soluble Components in Some Vegetables
Kazuhiro Abe*, Keiko Kaetsu, Nobuo Achiwa
pp. 15-18

This study examined the effect of blanching (hot water treatment and steam treatment) on the water soluble components (ascorbic acid and phenol substance) contained in spinach(Spinacia oleracea L.), komatsu-na(Brassica campestris var. pervilidis) and garden peas(Pisum sativum L.). In both treatments, the contents decreased with the extension of the blanching time, especially in a high rate in the hot water treatment. The reduction was more significant with the ascorbic acid content than with the phenol substance content. This demonstrates that ascorbic acid is dissolved from food materials and thermally decomposed during the blanching treatment. The residual ratio of both components was higher in garden peas than in spinach or komatsu-na. This shows that the cuticular layer and intercellular space in food materials affect the reduction rate.

Key words: Blanching, Ascorbic acid, Phenol substance, Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Komatsu-na (Brassica campestris var. pervilidis), Garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

*Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 12 (2011)

Effect of Culture Method on Nitrate Ion Concentration of 'Mizunasu' Eggplant Fruits
Keiko Kaetsu*, Shinya Morikawa, Takeshi Isobe, Kenji Nakamura, Kazuhiro Abe
pp. 1-6

To establish an efficient cultivation system for producing high-quality 'Mizunasu' eggplants, a comparison of 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown in hydroponic solution culture with different fertilizers applied and nutrient media used were investigated. In the hydroponic solution culture, the 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown the application of chemical fertilizer were more bitter than the 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown with the application of organic fertilizer. The 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown in the chemical hydroponic solution by the deep-flow technique were bitter compared with the 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown in the hybrid hydroponic solutions (with chemical and organic fertilizers) with a solid substrate. The greatest number of harvested 'Mizunasu' eggplants was obtained in the chemical hydroponic solutions with a solid substrate, and the least number of harvested 'Mizunasu' eggplants was obtained in the hydroponic solution with organic fertilizer with a solid substrate. The 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown using organic hydroponics by the deep-flow technique had the lowest nitrate ion concentration, whereas the 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown using chemical hydroponics by the deep-flow technique had the highest nitrate ion concentration. From these results, we conclude that the yield of bitter 'Mizunasu' eggplants can be reduced by the application of organic fertilizer in hydroponics rather than by the application of chemical fertilizer, and by the use of hydroponics with a solid substrate rather than by the deep-flow technique.

Key words: 'Mizunasu', nitrate ion concentration, organic fertilizer, nutrient media

*Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka, Prefectural Government,442 Shakudo, Habikino 583-0862, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 12 (2011)

Study of Changes of Free Amino Acids and Chlorophyll Contents of the Leafy Vegetables during Deterioration
Kazuhiro Abe*, Akane Monguchi, Keiko Kaetsu, Nobuo Achiwa
pp. 7-12

Free amino acids play an important role in evaluating the taste and quality of vegetables and fruits. Free amino acids are one of the most important components in determining tastes. When chlorophyll contents decrease, green vegetables deteriorate and turn yellow in color. Therefore chlorophyll contents are very important indicators in quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between free amino acid content and chlorophyll content in several green vegetable samples during deterioration. Two groups of samples were used. Group 1 samples: Green parts of the following vegetables were used. The leaves of the Chinese cabbages, the leaves of Osaka-shirona, the cotyledon of radish sprouts, the outer leaves of lettuce heads, the garland chrysanthemums, the stocks of celery, parsley, spinach, the leaves of the welsh onions, water peppers, and green perilla. All samples in this group contain more than 30mg of chlorophyll in 100g fresh weight. Group 2 samples: White parts of the following vegetables were used. The petiole of Chinese cabbages, the petiole of Osaka-shirona, the hypocotyls of radish sprouts, the inner leaves of lettuce heads, the stocks of celery, the sheath of the welsh onions. All samples in this group contain less than 5 mg of chlorophyll in 100g fresh weight. During storage, the chlorophyll contents decreased and free amino acid contents increased in the group 1 samples. In the group 2 samples, the chlorophyll contents and free amino acid contents remained almost the same. This demonstrates that there is a relationship between chloroplast degradation and formation of free amino acids in leaf vegetable storage.

Key words: Free amino acids, Chlorophyll contents, Leaf vegetables, Quality evaluation, yellowing during storage

*Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka Prefectural Government, 442 Shakudo, Habikino , Osaka, 583-0862 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 12 (2011)

Knowledge and Awareness about Environmental Carcinogens and Cancer, and its Relationship with Dietary Habits in College Students and General Population
Akinori Takai*, Mitsuru Kakimoto
pp. 13-18

Using a questionnaire, we investigated the knowledge and awareness about environmental carcinogens and cancer among 235 college students and general population in 1996, and 115 woman's college students in 2007. For most questions, the replies of the college students and general population in 1996, and the woman's college students in 2007 were similar. The knowledge and awareness about cancer were closely correlated. Such correlations were strongly shown in older subjects. Daily habits preventing cancer incidence were observed in a few subjects having profound knowledge and awareness regarding cancer, particularly that cancer incidence is closely correlated with daily habits. Subjects whose diet mainly consisted of vegetesseems to be awere that such a diet helps preventing cancer incidence. Gender-related differences in knowledge and awareness were rarely observed.

Keywords: Environmental carcinogen, Cancer, Awareness, Knowledge, Questionnaire

*Osaka Shin-Ai College, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0053, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 11 (2010)

Influence of Vegetarian Diet on Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density of Japanese Female Adolescents
Masako Arashi*, Mariko Watanabe, Masako Yokozuka, Eriko Nishikawa and Satoru Iwai
pp. 1-9

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between dietary intake and bone mineral density(BMD) in Japanese female adolescents who consume a vegetarian diet(VD) .
Methods: The study participants included 52 adolescent female students attending college who ate a vegetarian lunch at the hospital and a control group consisting of 52 adolescent female students from another college who consumed an omnivorous diet. Dietary intakes survey of the VD group were conducted using by FFQW82, Clinical data were collected at annual check ups and BMD was measured using samples collected from the calcaneus bone. The dietary survey was conducted in the same manner for the control group as well as their weight and height were also measured.
Results : In comparison the VD group with the control group, the VD group showed significant correlation between energy levels from lunch and dinner, plant-protein intake and dietary fiber(DF) (p<0.001), and in magnesium(Mg) and iron(Fe) levels(p<0.05). The plant-protein ratio was also significantly higher in the VD group (p<0.001). These results suggests that VD is essential for adequate intake of DF, Mg, and Fe. In addition we found that individuals in the high BMD group consumed significantly more soybeans and soy-beans products (p<0.05) than individuals in the low BMD group . This finding suggests that VD effectively increases the intake of soybean products thus improving BMD .Results of multiple regression analysis showed that soybeans and soybean products (ƒÀ=0.733Ap<0.001) influenced BMD to a grater extent while meats, (ƒÀ=0.931, p<0.001)and oil (ƒÀ=-0.466, p<0.01) were less influential. High density lipoprotein cholesterol levels also influenced the results of the clinical data (ƒÀ0.713, p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that VD could be an effective method for ensuring adequate nutritional intake and healthy BMD in Japanese female adolescents.

Key words: Vegetarian Diet, Bone Mineral Density, Soy beans

*Tokyo Adventist Hospital, Tokyo 167-0032, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 11 (2010)

Questionnaire Survey about Awareness, Eating Experiences, and Main Factors in Quality Evaluation of Colorful Vegetables for Decoration and Eating among Young People Majoring in Agriculture
Kazuhiro Abe*, Shyuji Shiozaki, Keiko Kaetsu, Shoji Shima, Keiji Kido, Ami Shimoyama, Yasuji Okai, Achiwa Nobuo
pp. 11-14

In this study, we surveyed students who had studied plants systematically in terms of plant taxonomy, plant morphology and the like. The survey revealed the extent to which these students dietetically thought of vegetables that are served as food or for their color and figure. [Eating Experiences] The students knew these names of the vegetables covered in the survey and had eaten them. However, the students thought of Japanese pepper leaf (Zanthoxylum piperitum DC) and chrysanthemum flowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramit) as decorations, and few had eaten these two kinds of plants. [Taste Preference] High taste preference: mitsuba (Japanese Hornwort, Cryptotaenia japonica Haask), sudachi (Citrus sudachi Hort.), radish sprouts, perilla(shiso, Perilla frutescens Britt.). Low taste preference: water pepper sprouts(Tade sprouts, Polygonum hydropiper Nakai), parsley. [Quality Evaluation factor] Color: parsley, mitsuba, water pepper sprouts. Shape: chrysanthemum flower, radish sprouts. Fragrance: mitsuba, parsley, sudachi, perilla. Taste: mitsuba, perilla, sudachi, radish sprouts. We found that the survey respondents knew the characteristics of these vegetables, had eaten them in various dishes, and realized that they were important as foodstuffs.

Key words: Questionnaire survey, Eating experiences, Quality evaluation, Colorful vegetables for decoration and eating, Agriculture

*Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka Prefectural Government, 442 Shakudo, Habikino , Osaka, 583-0862 Japan