Vegetarian Research|Abstract


Vegetarian Research Vol. 16 (2015)

Creating a New Vegan Diet Culture through the Restoration ofWashoku (Japanese Cuisine):
a Proposal forgThe Balance Sheet of Food and Lifeh Based on Yin-Yang Theory
Yumiko Otani (Yumiko Tubu-Tubu)*
pp. 1-12

A traditional grain based diet (Tubu-Tubu Future Food) suggests a new approach to vegan and vegetarian cuisine. Based on the wisdom and techniques of Washoku (Japanese cuisine), which has survived for over twenty centuries, this diet was creatively constructed without destroying the system of Washoku. It enables not only a physiologically but also a psychologically balanced, healthy, and morally rich vegan life by correcting unbalanced dietary practices and reexamining the adverse effects of focusing on modern dietetics. gThe Balance Sheet of Food and Lifeh is the reference guideline for healthy food and a healthy body and it shows the yin-yang and acid-alkali balance.

Keywords: Balance sheet of food and life, Yin-yang theory, Vegan, Vegetarian, Traditional grain based diet (Tubu-Tubu Future Food)

*Fu Future Living Laboratory, Inc., Tokyo, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 15 (2014)

The Consideration for Medical Articles about Vegetarian Diet in 2014
Tomohisa Miyagi*
pp. 1-6

This review is a consideration for the medical articles about vegetarian diets in 2014 . In Pubmed, there are 55 papers published in 2014 about vegetarian diet. Five papers were selected from among them because of the important content. In 2014, it is the same medical perspective as before that vegetarian diet is beneficial for health by being appropriately planned considering nutrition such as vitamin B12.

Key words: Vegetarian Diet, Mortality, Risk Ratio, Cardiovascular disease, cancer, Vitamin B12

*Graduate School of MediceneA, University of the Ryukyu, Okinawa 903-0125, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 13 (2012)

Characteristics of Pickles Made from Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. eMizunasuf), a Vegetable Indigenous to Osaka
Keiko Kaetsu* and Kazuhiro Abe
pp. 1-4

eMizunasuf, of the Osaka convention kind, is cultivated around the Senshuu area of Osaka, and pickles made from eMizunasuf are popular with consumers. Sensory testing of pickles in liquid and pickles with rice bran made from eMizunasuf and eSenryof that was the cultivar of the eggplant eaten widely was carried out and compared, to clarify the seasoning characteristic of pickles made from eMizunasuf. For pickles in liquid, eMizunasuf had superior appearance, texture, sweetness and the general evaluation about the taste to eSenryof. Its sourness was less, and the flavor was the same. Its taste had an equilateral association with appearance, texture and flavor. For pickles with rice bran, eMizunasuf was superior in appearance, texture, sweetness and flavor to eSenryof, and its sourness was lower. Its taste had an equilateral association with texture, sweetness and flavor. Pickles in liquid were superior in the general evaluation about the taste to pickles with rice bran made from eMizunasuf and from eSenryof. Pickles made from eMizunasuf are more popular with female than male. As a result, eMizunasuf were generally popular with consumers, because pickles made from eMizunasuf were superior to pickles made from eSenryof in appearance and texture, and their sweetness and flavor were strong, whereas their sourness was weak.

Key words: eggplant, eMizunasuf, pickle in liquid, pickle with rice bran, sensory test

*Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka, Prefectural Government,442 Shakudo, Habikino 583-0862, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 13 (2012)

Effect of Combination of Electrolyzed Acidic Water and Ultrasonic Vibration Treatment on the Microorganisms of Fresh-cut Cabbages
Kazuhiro Abe*, Keiko Kaetsu and Nobuo Achiwa
pp. 5-8

In this research, the bactericidal effect of a combination of electrolyzed acidic water (EAW) treatment and another treatment (ultrasonic vibration treatment or intercellular space substitution) was examined by using fresh-cut cabbages of different shapes (2 cm square sections, 1 cm square sections, and shredded sections). The disinfection effect of EAW dipping treatment was found most significant on the shredded sections, followed by the 1 cm square sections, then the 2 cm square sections. This result shows that the bactericidal effect is attributed to disinfection not of the cuticular layer but of the cut surfaces of the sections. It was demonstrated that the disinfection effect is increased by adding ultrasonic vibration during EAW dipping treatment or by substituting air in the intercellular space of the sections with EAW.

Key words: electrolyzed acidic water, ultrasonic vibration, fresh-cut cabbages, microorganisms

*Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 13 (2012)

Survey on Daily Intake of Red Meats and Present State of Vegetarian in Principal City, Mongolia
Masahiro Nakagawa*, Akinori Takai and Mitsuru Kakimoto
pp. 9-13

To understand the current situation of the diet in Mongolia, we investigated the daily intake of animal foods by a questionnaire in 140 examinees (59 men, 71 women, and 10 unknown) aged 16-63. The daily intakes of red-meats and milks were more than 80% and 60%, respectively. The ratio of the intake of red-meats was high in both male and female. Lacto-ovo vegetarian was 1.5%. Those who avoid the intakes of red meats, chicken, fish and shellfish, egg, and milks were 32.9%, 15.7%, 17.9%, 7.1%, and 4.3%, respectively. Many of the reasons why they did not eat animal foods were for health (46.4%). These results suggested that the difference is previous between their behaviors and consciousness in intake of red meats.

Key wordFanimal food intake, lacto-vegetarian, modern food culture

*Wetlands International Japan, 3-7-3 Ningyocho Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku Tokyo 103-0013, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 13 (2012)

Influence of Blanching on the Contents of Water Soluble Components in Some Vegetables
Kazuhiro Abe*, Keiko Kaetsu and Nobuo Achiwa
pp. 15-18

This study examined the effect of blanching (hot water treatment and steam treatment) on the water soluble components (ascorbic acid and phenol substance) contained in spinach(Spinacia oleracea L.), komatsu-na(Brassica campestris var. pervilidis) and garden peas(Pisum sativum L.). In both treatments, the contents decreased with the extension of the blanching time, especially in a high rate in the hot water treatment. The reduction was more significant with the ascorbic acid content than with the phenol substance content. This demonstrates that ascorbic acid is dissolved from food materials and thermally decomposed during the blanching treatment. The residual ratio of both components was higher in garden peas than in spinach or komatsu-na. This shows that the cuticular layer and intercellular space in food materials affect the reduction rate.

Key words: Blanching, Ascorbic acid, Phenol substance, Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Komatsu-na (Brassica campestris var. pervilidis), Garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

*Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 12 (2011)

Effect of Culture Method on Nitrate Ion Concentration of 'Mizunasu' Eggplant Fruits
Keiko Kaetsu*, Shinya Morikawa, Takeshi Isobe, Kenji Nakamura and Kazuhiro Abe
pp. 1-6

To establish an efficient cultivation system for producing high-quality 'Mizunasu' eggplants, a comparison of 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown in hydroponic solution culture with different fertilizers applied and nutrient media used were investigated. In the hydroponic solution culture, the 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown the application of chemical fertilizer were more bitter than the 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown with the application of organic fertilizer. The 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown in the chemical hydroponic solution by the deep-flow technique were bitter compared with the 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown in the hybrid hydroponic solutions (with chemical and organic fertilizers) with a solid substrate. The greatest number of harvested 'Mizunasu' eggplants was obtained in the chemical hydroponic solutions with a solid substrate, and the least number of harvested 'Mizunasu' eggplants was obtained in the hydroponic solution with organic fertilizer with a solid substrate. The 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown using organic hydroponics by the deep-flow technique had the lowest nitrate ion concentration, whereas the 'Mizunasu' eggplants grown using chemical hydroponics by the deep-flow technique had the highest nitrate ion concentration. From these results, we conclude that the yield of bitter 'Mizunasu' eggplants can be reduced by the application of organic fertilizer in hydroponics rather than by the application of chemical fertilizer, and by the use of hydroponics with a solid substrate rather than by the deep-flow technique.

Key words: 'Mizunasu', nitrate ion concentration, organic fertilizer, nutrient media

*Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka, Prefectural Government,442 Shakudo, Habikino 583-0862, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 12 (2011)

Study of Changes of Free Amino Acids and Chlorophyll Contents of the Leafy Vegetables during Deterioration
Kazuhiro Abe*, Akane Monguchi, Keiko Kaetsu and Nobuo Achiwa
pp. 7-12

Free amino acids play an important role in evaluating the taste and quality of vegetables and fruits. Free amino acids are one of the most important components in determining tastes. When chlorophyll contents decrease, green vegetables deteriorate and turn yellow in color. Therefore chlorophyll contents are very important indicators in quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between free amino acid content and chlorophyll content in several green vegetable samples during deterioration. Two groups of samples were used. Group 1 samples: Green parts of the following vegetables were used. The leaves of the Chinese cabbages, the leaves of Osaka-shirona, the cotyledon of radish sprouts, the outer leaves of lettuce heads, the garland chrysanthemums, the stocks of celery, parsley, spinach, the leaves of the welsh onions, water peppers, and green perilla. All samples in this group contain more than 30mg of chlorophyll in 100g fresh weight. Group 2 samples: White parts of the following vegetables were used. The petiole of Chinese cabbages, the petiole of Osaka-shirona, the hypocotyls of radish sprouts, the inner leaves of lettuce heads, the stocks of celery, the sheath of the welsh onions. All samples in this group contain less than 5 mg of chlorophyll in 100g fresh weight. During storage, the chlorophyll contents decreased and free amino acid contents increased in the group 1 samples. In the group 2 samples, the chlorophyll contents and free amino acid contents remained almost the same. This demonstrates that there is a relationship between chloroplast degradation and formation of free amino acids in leaf vegetable storage.

Key words: Free amino acids, Chlorophyll contents, Leaf vegetables, Quality evaluation, yellowing during storage

*Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka Prefectural Government, 442 Shakudo, Habikino , Osaka, 583-0862 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 12 (2011)

Knowledge and Awareness about Environmental Carcinogens and Cancer, and its Relationship with Dietary Habits in College Students and General Population
Akinori Takai* and Mitsuru Kakimoto
pp. 13-18

Using a questionnaire, we investigated the knowledge and awareness about environmental carcinogens and cancer among 235 college students and general population in 1996, and 115 woman's college students in 2007. For most questions, the replies of the college students and general population in 1996, and the woman's college students in 2007 were similar. The knowledge and awareness about cancer were closely correlated. Such correlations were strongly shown in older subjects. Daily habits preventing cancer incidence were observed in a few subjects having profound knowledge and awareness regarding cancer, particularly that cancer incidence is closely correlated with daily habits. Subjects whose diet mainly consisted of vegetesseems to be awere that such a diet helps preventing cancer incidence. Gender-related differences in knowledge and awareness were rarely observed.

Keywords: Environmental carcinogen, Cancer, Awareness, Knowledge, Questionnaire

*Osaka Shin-Ai College, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0053, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 11 (2010)

Influence of Vegetarian Diet on Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density of Japanese Female Adolescents
Masako Arashi*, Mariko Watanabe, Masako Yokozuka, Eriko Nishikawa and Satoru Iwai
pp. 1-9

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between dietary intake and bone mineral density(BMD) in Japanese female adolescents who consume a vegetarian diet(VD) .
Methods: The study participants included 52 adolescent female students attending college who ate a vegetarian lunch at the hospital and a control group consisting of 52 adolescent female students from another college who consumed an omnivorous diet. Dietary intakes survey of the VD group were conducted using by FFQW82, Clinical data were collected at annual check ups and BMD was measured using samples collected from the calcaneus bone. The dietary survey was conducted in the same manner for the control group as well as their weight and height were also measured.
Results : In comparison the VD group with the control group, the VD group showed significant correlation between energy levels from lunch and dinner, plant-protein intake and dietary fiber(DF) (p<0.001), and in magnesium(Mg) and iron(Fe) levels(p<0.05). The plant-protein ratio was also significantly higher in the VD group (p<0.001). These results suggests that VD is essential for adequate intake of DF, Mg, and Fe. In addition we found that individuals in the high BMD group consumed significantly more soybeans and soy-beans products (p<0.05) than individuals in the low BMD group . This finding suggests that VD effectively increases the intake of soybean products thus improving BMD .Results of multiple regression analysis showed that soybeans and soybean products (ƒÀ=0.733Ap<0.001) influenced BMD to a grater extent while meats, (ƒÀ=0.931, p<0.001)and oil (ƒÀ=-0.466, p<0.01) were less influential. High density lipoprotein cholesterol levels also influenced the results of the clinical data (ƒÀ0.713, p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that VD could be an effective method for ensuring adequate nutritional intake and healthy BMD in Japanese female adolescents.

Key words:, Vegetarian Diet, Bone Mineral Density , Soy beans

*Tokyo Adventist Hospital, Tokyo 167-0032, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 11 (2010)

Questionnaire Survey about Awareness, Eating Experiences, and Main Factors in Quality Evaluation of Colorful Vegetables for Decoration and Eating among Young People Majoring in Agriculture
Kazuhiro Abe*, Shyuji Shiozaki, Keiko Kaetsu, Shoji Shima, Keiji Kido, Ami Shimoyama, Yasuji Okai and Achiwa Nobuo
pp. 11-14

In this study, we surveyed students who had studied plants systematically in terms of plant taxonomy, plant morphology and the like. The survey revealed the extent to which these students dietetically thought of vegetables that are served as food or for their color and figure. [Eating Experiences] The students knew these names of the vegetables covered in the survey and had eaten them. However, the students thought of Japanese pepper leaf (Zanthoxylum piperitum DC) and chrysanthemum flowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramit) as decorations, and few had eaten these two kinds of plants. [Taste Preference] High taste preference: mitsuba (Japanese Hornwort, Cryptotaenia japonica Haask), sudachi (Citrus sudachi Hort.), radish sprouts, perilla(shiso, Perilla frutescens Britt.). Low taste preference: water pepper sprouts(Tade sprouts, Polygonum hydropiper Nakai), parsley. [Quality Evaluation factor] Color: parsley, mitsuba, water pepper sprouts. Shape: chrysanthemum flower, radish sprouts. Fragrance: mitsuba, parsley, sudachi, perilla. Taste: mitsuba, perilla, sudachi, radish sprouts. We found that the survey respondents knew the characteristics of these vegetables, had eaten them in various dishes, and realized that they were important as foodstuffs.

Key words: Questionnaire survey, Eating experiences, Quality evaluation, Colorful vegetables for decoration and eating, Agriculture

*Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka Prefectural Government, 442 Shakudo, Habikino , Osaka, 583-0862 Japan