Vegetarian Research|Abstract


Vegetarian Research Vol. 10 (2009)

Relationship between Vegetarian Diet, Laboratory Results, and Consciousness of Personal Health Condition among Hospital Workers
Masako Arashi, Naotaka Hashizume, Satoru Iwai and Mariko Watanabe
pp. 21-31

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vegetarian diet, laboratory results and consciousness of personal health condition among hospital workers in Japan. Study participants consisted of 66 male and 172 female hospital workers. Their dietary intake was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The laboratory results were collected at annual health check ups and the patient's health conditions were evaluated using the Consciousness of Health Condition Questionnaire (CHCQ). By analyzing the data of the laboratory results, and CHCQ, the following conclusions were drawn:males in the vegetarian diet(VD) group who ate less than one serving of meat or fish per week showed significantly lower triglyceride levels(p<0.05), and slightly lower body mass index(BMI) compared with those in the group that consumed more than two servings of meat or fish per week. Triglyceride levels were also slightly lower in the female VD group. Result of the factor analysis, indicated that plant food was the most significant factor influencing this study followed by animal food and cereals. A multiple comparison analysis between each of these factors showed a significant difference in the animal foods group(p<0.001). Evaluation of the CHCQ results indicated that individuals the VD group showed more consciousness towards their health conditions compared with those in the animal foods group.
Key word: Vegetarian Diet, Laboratory Results, Consciousness of Health Conditions, Hospital Workers

*Tokyo Adventist Hospital


Vegetarian Research Vol. 10 (2009)

A Study on Vegetable Intake of Female Junior College Students
Nanae Sato*, Takako Sawada and Yoko Sasada
pp. 33-37

We investigated the vegetable intake in female junior college students. The lack of vegetable consumption among younger generations was remarkably recognized in the interim report of Health Japan 21. The survey conducted in this study was designed to find effective remedies to resolve this issue. The results of the survey were as follows: 1) The average daily vegetable intake of female junior college students was 148.6 } 103.2 g (considered to be a very small amount), 2) Of the three daily meals consumed, vegetables were found to be eaten mostly at supper and eaten the least at breakfast (p < 0.05), 3) Concerning the intake of soup, we found that the group that ate the most soup per meal consumed significantly more vegetables (p < 0.05), and 4) The group that consumed soup consequently consumed higher amounts of vegetables at breakfast. These results that the lack of vegetable intake among female junior college students is a very serious issue. This is a matter of great urgency and the population must make an effort to increase their vegetable consumption. The results of this study indicate that focusing on vegetable consumption at breakfast and increased soup consumption would be an effective approach for achieving this goal.

*The University of Morioka


Vegetarian Research Vol. 10 (2009)

Comparison of Physiological and Chemical Changes between Organic Banana and Conventionaly Produced (CP) Banana during Ripening
Kazuhiro Abe*, Makiko Sasamoto, Yuka Yamashita, Akiko Kosuga, Hiroe Shibahara, Shyuji Shiozaki, Shoji Shima and Nobuo Achiwa
pp. 39-44

Recently, food safety is an increasing public health issue. In the organic agricultural, products do not apply pesticides and chemical-synthetic fertilizer and considered them as safe products that can meet consumer needs. However organic carrots contained more microorganisms than conventional(CO) one. On the other hands, microorganisms affect the rate of ripening in the sliced banana fruits without ethylene treatment.The purpose of this study is to compare physiological and chemical changes between organic and CO banana fruits during ripening. The sugar spot was increased in organic bananas after 4 days storage compared with CO bananas. An increase in the total viable counts of bacteria in flesh and peel of organic bananas was observed during the storage period, Furthermore, different colony types of bacteria were observed in organic bananas. No differences in sweetness and astringency were found during storage period. Organic and CO bananas had no significant differences in the decreasing of alcohol insoluble solid and the increasing of sugar contents due to the growing methods. The physiological activity index, CO2 emission and ethylene production, were increased rapidly in organic banana than the CO banana. The change of peel color of sterilized banana with 70% ethanol was slower than that of control. This study shows that the microorganisms affect the physiological and chemical changes in organic and CO bananas during ripening. There are more microorganisms in organic banana which may increase the physiological activity and the speed of ripening.
Key Words: banana, ripening, sugar content, microorganisms, physiological activity

*Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 10 (2009)

Properties of Microorganism in Edible Flowers and Leaves and Flowers for Decoration
Abe Kazuhiro*, Yamashita Yuka, Kosuga Akiko, Shibahara Hiroe, Sasamoto Makiko, Shiozaki Shyuji, Shima Shoji, Simoyama Ami, Okai Yasuji and Achiwa Nobuo
pp. 45-49

The edible flower and leaf vegetables as the raw materials in salad and sashimi, may contain microorganisms which cause food poisoning and food safety risks. In this study, the total viable bacterial cell counts(TVBC) in the edible flowers and leaf vegetables were examined. The TVBC of chrysanthemum in the market was first investigated. The result indicated that TVBC variation depends on the production area and cultivation methods. Similar results were obtained when TVBC of chrysanthemum was measured at harvest time. The 10 types of flower were examined whose flowers are used as decoration or eaten as raw. The snapdragons and the rose have relatively low TVBC, but the TVBC in the pink and the hydrangea were approximately 107, respectively. The TVBC in the perilla was the 106`107, and there was 1000 times difference in the leaf and the flower of the Japanese butterbur. The rape flower and the broccoli has high TVBC(105`108).The TVBC in leaf vegetables was lower, compared with the edible flowers. The TVBC of liquidambar was the 105`106, but TVBC in the nandina and the bamboo grass were low(0`105).From these results, we indicated the presence of microorganisms in different edible flowers and leaf vegetables eaten law as the appetizers and in salads. But, we clarified that the TVBC was reduced by electrolyzed acidic water treatment.
Key words: Salad, Edible flower, Leaf vegetable, Microorganism, Electrolyzed acidic water

*Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 10 (2009)

Effect of Vegetarian Diet on Serum Folate
Hisa Higuchi*, Toyoko Okuda, Miho Kogirima, Yukari Kobatake and Kana Ioku
pp. 51-58

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the dietary factors that influenced serum folate. Data were obtained from 42 vegetarians and 88 omnivorous middle-aged voluntary men and women. The vegetarian diet consisted mainly of unpolished rice, green vegetables, and tofu (bean curd), under a physician's guidance. Serum folate concentrations were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. The serum folate in the vegetarian group (14.8 ng/ml) were significantly higher than in the non vegetarian group (10.3 ng/ml), but there was no difference in the folic intake (396 ƒÊg, 376 ƒÊg). A factor analysis was performed on the variables of physique, body composition, hematological parameters, nutrient intake, and food intake. Nine components were subjected to path analysis. The results showed that "green vegetables", "vitamins, minerals" and "serum proteins" directly increased, and "nutrients from animal foods" directly decreased the serum folate. "Pulses" indirectly increased the serum folate. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the vegetarian diet directly and indirectly increases the serum folate and subsequently reduces plasma homocysteine and might to attributable to cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: vegetarian, serum folate, folate intake

*Kinki University


Vegetarian Research Vol. 9 (2008)

Growth Characteristics and Sugar Content of 'Tennoji' Turnip iBrassica campestris L. cv. Tennojijin the Late Harvesting Stage
Keiko KaetsuC Motoyoshi YamasakiC Yuichiro TakaiC Kazuhiro Abe
pp. 1-6

The flower stalk of the 'Tennoji' turnip with bolting, leaf and root growth, was investigated in the late harvesting stage. In the 4 weeks after the optimal harvesting date, the sizes and weights of the roots did not increase. However, the flower stalks and leaves became larger, and the total plant weight increased. This tendency was similar to the allied variety 'Nozawana'. The sugar content of the roots (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) was investigated at the same time. As the flower stalks enlarged, the three sugars decrease in concentration contents in the roots of the 'Tennoji' turnip. The total sugar content (glucose+fructose+ sucrose) in the roots decreased more than in 'Nozawana'. This study indicates that the 'Tennoji' turnip uses great deal of energy stored in the roots for growth of the flower stalks after the optimal harvesting date, so that the sugar content in the roots, which is important to the quality of the turnip, decreases. Harvesting at the optimal time is important for producing 'Tennoji' turnips of good quality.

Key words: 'Tennoji' turnip, bolting, optimal harvesting date, flower stalk,suger content, Nozawana

*>Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka Prefectural Government, 442 Shakudo, Habikino , Osaka, 583-0862 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 9 (2008)

Dietary intake, food group intake and biochemical status of middle-aged Japanese vegetarians
Keiko Nakamoto*, Sanae Watanabe, Hideki Kudo, Akira Tanaka
pp. 7-16

Abstract. Objective: Despite the possible overall health benefits of vegetarian diet, very few researches on the nutritional characteristics of Japanese vegetarians have been reported. Our objective is to clarify the nutritional characteristics of Japanese vegetarians compared with those of Japanese non-vegetarians. Design: The dietary intake, anthropometric and biochemical status of 75 middle-aged Japanese vegetarians (MV, 20 men and 55 women) were compared with those of age-sex matched 98 middle-aged Japanese non-vegetarians (MNV, 80 men and 18 women) in a cross-sectional study. Results: MV men had significantly higher intakes of calcium, iron (P<0.001) and dietary fiber (p<0.01), and significantly lower intakes of vitamin D (p<0.05), vitamin B12, cholesterol, meat fat, seafood fat and lower percentage of energy intakes as animal protein (p<0.01) than MNV men. In addition, MV men had significantly lower serum total cholesterol (p<0.05), body mass index, blood pressure, aspartate transaminase, alanin transaminase and serum triacylglyceride (p<0.01) than JNV men. MV women had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and serum triacylglyceride (p<0.05) than MNV women. Conclusions: MV men and women had better nutritional characteristics except significantly lower vitamin D and vitamin B12 intake than MNV men and women from a standpoint of lifestyle-related diseases.

Key words: Vegetarian, dietary intake, food group intake, Japanese, triacylglyceride, blood pressure.

*San-iku Food Co.


Vegetarian Research Vol. 8 (2007)

Prevention of Lifestyle-related Diseases by an American-style Vegetarian Diet
Mitsuru Tsuchida*
Vegetarian Research Vol. 8, 1-6 (2007)

This paper presents a review of numerous reports on the current status of vegetarian diets in the U.S., where they are widely accepted as a common dietary choice, specifically on factors that have contributed to the increase of the vegetarian population, the history of vegetarianism in the U.S., the nutritional characteristics of American-style vegetarian diets, and their effect on preventing lifestyle-related diseases. Many epidemiological surveillance studies have demonstrated the efficacy of vegetarian diets in preventing lifestyle-related diseases among vegetarians, who follow dietary principles contrasting to the meat-oriented dietary habit more common in the U.S. In Japan, where the world's longest-lived people follow dietary principles not significantly different from those of vegetarianism, the lifestyle-related disease-preventive effect of vegetarian diets has also been investigated in certain reports, but further evidence should be obtained from future studies.

Key words: vegetarian, U.S.A., current status, history of vegetarianism, prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, epidemiological studies

*Aichi Mizuho College Graduate Center of Human Sciences, Haiwa 86-1, Hiratobashi-cho, Toyota, Aichi, 400-0394, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 8 (2007)

Effects of Electrolyzed Alkaline Water Treatment on the Yield and Quality of Paddy-rice
Kazuhiro Abe*, Tomohiro Ueda, Masayoshi Sanou, Hajime Fujioka, Shin-ichi Kusakari, Motonobu Kawano, Takashi Mikami, Tatsuhiko Ochi, Shyuji Shiozaki, Hiroyuki Yamanaka, Shoji Shima
Vegetarian Research Vol. 8, 7-10 (2007)

Effects of electrolyzed water treatment on the yield and quality of paddy-rice were studied.
[Yield of Paddy Rice] In both of the two test fields in Osaka Prefecture, the winnowed paddy weight and brown rice weight of the sprayed lot exceeded those of the control lot. The test field in Aichi Prefecture showed little difference between the two lots.
[Quality of Paddy Rice] (1) Brown Rice: Aichi was found better in taste, and both Sakai (S) and Habikino (H) in Osaka were almost equivalent. But there was no specific difference between the sprayed and control lots in either of the three test fields. Both of the two lots in the three test fields contained almost equal levels of amylose, protein, water, and fatty acid. (2) Boiled Rice: As for the taste, Aichi was found better than or equal to Osaka (S), and both of them were better than Osaka (H). But there was no specific difference between the sprayed and control lots in either of the three test fields. Both of the two lots in the three test fields showed almost equal appearance, hardness, cohesiveness, and balance.

Key words: electrolyzed water, yield, quality, taste, paddy-rice

*Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 8 (2007)

Young Single Women's Eating Trends by Food Group and Their Recognition Survey on Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables
Abe Kazuhiro*, Shiozaki Shyuji, Achiwa Nobuo, Yamanaka Hiroyuki, Shima Shoji, Kido Keiji, Okai Yasuji, and Kusakari Shin-ichi
Vegetarian Research Vol. 8, 11-14 (2007)

Eating Trends by Food Group: The respondents named vegetables as the food they need to increase most in their diet, secondly fruits, and thirdly seaweeds, while snacks ranked at the top of the food to be decreased in their diet and instant foods at the second place. Recognition of Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables: Among the 134 respondents, 109 (81%) replied that they repeatedly purchase fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. The most indicated negative aspects of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables were "higher price", "less freshness", and "uncertain production process", whereas the most indicated positive aspects were "easy accessibility", "high convenience", "readiness to eat", and "everyday food".
Key words:

**Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 7 (2006)

Fatty Acid Intake of Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Adolescents in Japan
Mitsuru Kakimoto*
Vegetarian Research Vol. 7, 1-8 (2006)

A food intake survey was conducted for three consecutive days on 109 lacto-ovo-vegetarians aged 14-16 years and 82 non-vegetarians of the same age in order to compare the two groups in terms of: food-group intake, nutrient intake, and fatty acid intake. The survey revealed that the vegetarian group had a higher intake of foods except eggs, meat, fish and shellfish. Nutrient intake was sufficient except for niacin, and the lacto-ovo-vegetarians' diet was well balanced. The P/S ratio (ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated acid) was 1.1-1.2 among the lacto-ovo-vegetarians. The fat energy ratio was 30.9-33.4%. And the ratio of n-6 fatty acid to n-3 fatty acid was about 5, while that of the vegetarian group was about 7. The intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in vegetarians were small, 1/7-1/10 of their non-vegetarian counterparts. On the other hand, the intake of linoleic acid in vegetarians tended to be large. It is concluded that some improvement in diet is necessary for the ideal intake of fat and fatty acid.
Keywords: Vegetarian, Vegetarianism, Nutrient intake, Fatty acid intake, Japanese, Westerners

*Osaka Jogakuin College, 2-26-54 Tamatsukuri, Chuoh-ku, Osaka 540-0004, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 7 (2006)

Organoleptic Sensory Test for Fresh-cut Stick Vegetables and Factors Affecting Evaluation
Kazuhiro Abe*, Nobuo Achiwa, Hiroyuki Yamanaka, Shoji Shima, Shin-ichi Kusakari
Vegetarian Research Vol. 7, 9-11 (2006)

Organoleptic sensory test was performed about the taste of fresh-cut stick vegetables(carrot, cucumber and celery) with a class of youth to explain the factors affecting the preference. Panelists liked best on the cucumber, followed by carrot, and they liked worst on the celery. As for the panelist's evaluation, it was obvious that they judged by the taste and shape before cutting process, the experience with usual eating habits and the use frequency.
Key word: Organoleptic sensory test, fresh-cut stick vegetables, carrot, cucumber, celery

*Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-Cho, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 7 (2006)

Case Study on Application of Electrolyzed Water in Agricultural Production (Productivity, Quality Improvement and Microbial Safety Assurance)
Nobuo Achiwa*, Hiroshi Tsuchiya, Yukinori Ishiwatari, Yoshinori Kamitani, Masahiko Katayose1, Yosuke Saito1, Kyoichiro Yoshida1, Kazuhiro Abe, Shin-ichi Kusakari
Vegetarian Research Vol.7, 13-17 (2006)

This paper introduces the application in the agricultural industry of electrolyzed acidic and alkaline water generated by electrolysis of dilute KCl (potassium chloride) through a membrane. Electrolyzed acidic water with a strong bactericidal effect has been approved as a disinfectant food additive since 2002 and widely used in the medical and food industries. In the agricultural industry, papers have reported its application, but with only a few actual examples. Therefore, we conducted hearings with agricultural producers in some application fields and report their results with pictures.
Key word: Electrolyzed water, Disinfection, Spray application, Fruits, Vegetables

*Elemental Technology Section, HOSHIZAKI ELECTRIC CO., LTD. 3-16 Minamiyakata, Sakae, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1194 Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 6 (2005)

Use of the Laver (Porphyra) for Vegetarian as the Supplement of the Vitamin B12
Kazutoshi Nishizawa*, Mitsuo Ochiai, Takeshi Yamada, Hiroshi Arai
Vegetarian Research Vol. 6, 7-10 (2005).

Porphyra ezoensis, a species of marine algae, or so-called marine vegetables, is presently replacing P. tenera, which has been cultured for nearly 40 years, as one of the most cultured algae in Japan. It contains a particularly high amount of vitamin B12, most of which is present in the form of cyanocobaramin. This suggests that laver is suitable as a vitamin B12-food supplement, even for the strictest of vegetarians. For this reason, we investigated the ability of vitamin B12 to be absorbed from laver frond powder into the liver of experimental rats. This was done by using a microbial analytical method in which the B12, absorbed by the liver from the standard bait was mixed with the fine-powdered laver fronds. Standard procedures were used, and no excess amounts of B12 were found in the blood.

*3-10-4 Mukoyama, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176-0022, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 6 (2005)

Survey on Vegetarian based on Daily Intake of Animal Foods, II. A Report on Middle-aged Women in Northern Part of Hyogo
Akinori Takai*, Hiroyuki Yamanaka, Mitsuru Kakimoto
Vegetarian Research Vol. 6, 11-14 (2005).

We investigated the daily intake of animal foods by a questionnaire in 114 women aged 40-82 to clarify the size of vegetarian population and the current situation concerning vegetarian diet in Japan. There were no vegan (pure-vegetarian) and no lacto-ovo-vegetarians but 0.9% were non-meat-eaters. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian-like and non-meat-eater-like peoples including those who rarely eat animal foods were 3.5% and 10.5%, respectively. Many of reasons why they do not eat animal foods were health (70.0%).
Key word: animal food intake, vegetarian diet, vegetarian population

*Osaka Shin-Ai College, 6-2-28 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0053, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 4 (2003)

Relationship of Plant-based Protein Consumption to Serum Insulin Levels in Japanese Middle-aged Vegetarians
Mitsuru Tsuchida*, Edward Fujimoto, Osamu Mizukami, Kunihiko Tominaga, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Keiko Suzuki, Yoshiko Ohtake, Kyoichi Miyazaki, Hiroshi Inaba, Michiko Kurosawa, Kazushige Ihara, Kenichi Nakamura,
Vegetarian Research Vol. 4, No.1, 1-8 (2003)

To determine the relation between generous intakes of plant-based protein and health, middle-aged Japanese (age from 50 to 69) male vegetarian subjects (n=10) and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects consuming typical Japanese diets were compared for plant protein intake, serum amino acids and insulin levels. Significant differences were found in frequency of meat, fish and legume consumption as well as carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake levels. The ratios of animal to plant protein consumption and amino acids lysine to arginine were significantly lower in vegetarians. The ratio of the plasma amino acid fraction of lysine to that of arginine, serum levels of insulin and total cholesterol were also significantly lower, while glucagon tended to be higher in the vegetarians. Body fat measurements of BMI, percent body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio were lower in vegetarians. The high intake of plant-based protein of the vegetarian subjects was reflected in the plasma amino acid differences, which related to a lower level of serum insulin. This may possibly, in turn, link to lower blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, and body fat. In this study, insulin levels were compared between vegetarian subjects and a comparison group consisting of subjects in their 50's and 60's, the age group in Japan who are consuming a typical Japanese diet that is considered to be relatively healthy. Even when compared with this relatively healthy group, the dietary difference of vegetarians appeared to have a significant beneficial effect of reducing insulin secretion.
Key word: Japanese vegetarian, middle-aged, plant protein intake, lysine/arginine , plasma amino acid, serum insulin , serum total cholesterol, body fat.

*Aichi Mizuho College Graduate Center of Human Sciences, Haiwa 86-1, Hiratobashi-cho, Toyota, Aichi, 400-0394, Japan,


Vegetarian Research Vol. 4 (2003)

Nutritional Intake of and Anemia in Vegetarian Women who Eat Brown Rice.
Yumi Watabe*, Hideo Suzuki,

Vegetarian Research Vol. 4, 9-15 (2003)

Occurrence and risk of iron-deficiency anemia or megaroblastic anemia are more prevalent in vegetarians who eat no animal food at all. This study was therefore designed to investigate the nutritional intake and hematological status of 18 Japanese vegetarian women(mean age 43.8}14.5yrs) who eat brown rice. There were seven vegetarians who ate no animal food at all, the others being people who tried to avoid eating it as much as possible. Cereal, nut and seed, and seaweed intake was significantly higher in the vegetarians compared with the mean food intake of the women in their 40's in the national nutrition survey. However, there was no difference in the intake of beans, vegetables and fruit. Iron, vitamin B1, niacin and dietary fiber absorbed 80% or more of the dietary allowance but intake of energy, protein and other nutritive substances was significantly low. 44% of the vegetarians did not consume their protein requirement (0.7g/kg). The mean BMI was 19.5}3.3. 33% of them had a BMI value of less than 18.5. Low hemoglobin concentration(ƒ12g/dl) occurred in 33% of the vegetarians. There were two people diagnosed from the hemoglobin, the hematocrit, the serum iron, MCV, MCH, the number of red blood corpuscles and TIBC as having iron- deficiency anemia. The frequency of had iron-deficiency anemia was the same as in the non-vegetarians. One person had macrocyte anemia, but a positive megaloblastic anemia could not be found.
Key word: vegetarian, nutritional intake, anemia

*Osaka Shin-Ai College, 6-2-28 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0053, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 4 (2003)

Survey on Vegetarian Based on Daily Intake of Animal Foods, I: A Report on Undergraduate Students in Kinki Area. .
Akinori Takai*, Hiroyuki Yamanaka, Hideki Mito, Mitsuru Kakimoto
Vegetarian Research Vol. 4, 17-22 (2003).

We investigated the daily intake of animal foods in a questionnaire completed by 533 undergraduate students (125 men and 408 women) aged 18-28 to clarify the size of the vegetarian population and the current situation concerning vegetarian diet in Japan. There were no vegan (pure-vegetarian) and no lacto-ovo-vegetarians but 0.9% were non-meat eaters. Vegan-like, lacto-ovo-vegetarian-like and non-meat-eater-like people, including those who rarely eat animal foods, accounted for 0.2%, 4.3% and 9.2%, respectively. However, many of the vegetarian-like people were not aware of being vegetarian and did not actively avoid the intake of animal foods. Many of the reasons why they did not eat animal foods were dislike (36%) and health (28%).
Key word: animal food intake, vegetarian diet, vegetarian population

*Osaka Shin-Ai College, 6-2-28 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0053, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 2 (2001)

Marine Algae May Be a Food that Prevents Life-Style Related Diseases.
Kazutosi Nisizawa*
Vegetarian Research Vol. 2, 1-12 (2001)

The Japanese diet has since long ago changed to resemble the common Eulopean diet. We have thus apparently come to be well-nourished in our daily lives. Furtnermore, the Japanese life span has been extended to become one of the longest in the world. Our dietary habit, however, seem to have recently got worse because of imbarance in nutrients. It has been officially reported that the death rates from such diseases as cardiac infraction as well as encephalo-apoplexy or -infraction and diabetes etc. are rising. These diseases relate closely to our lifestyles in most cases exept those due to genetic factors. It has recently been elucidated, however, that the edible seaweeds or sea-vegetables contain various substances useful in keeping the human body healthy, for example, water-soluble heteropolysaccharides having various dietary-fiber properties with high-level physiological functions when taken as food in addition to various lipids consisting of abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid residues different from those of higher plansts and animals. These substances exhibit a preventive function against cholesteremia as well as cancers. Some edible seaweeds, particularly belonging to the brown-algae group, contain certain amounts of fucosterol and carotenoids, which have the physiological function of lowering hypertension and eliminating superoxides, respectively. A certain group of the edible red algae such as Nori contains quite large amounts of vitamin B12 in addition to taurine and choline, which occur usuarly in animals. In addition, most of seaweeds, including edible ones, contain not only various antibiotics or phenolic antioxidants but also many kinds of minerals which are intimately related to important bio- and enzymatic reactions within our bodies. Thus, it seems to be desirable, even in advanced countries, to eat more sea-vegetables in addition to yellow-green vegetables, the above-mentioned facts being taken into consideration.
Key words: Algal heteropolysaccharides, dietary fiber, antihypertensive substances, cholesterolemia, anticoagulant, thrombosis, diabetes, antitumor activity, mineral.

*Laboratory for Utilizaton of Marine Resources, Horiuchi Food Industry Ltd., present address: 10-ban-4, Kouyama-3, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176-0022, Japan.


Vegetarian Research Vol. 2 (2001)

The Environmental Issues of Meat Production and Fish Harvest.
Kazuhiro Matsuo*
Vegetarian Research Vol. 2, 13-21 (2001)

Although a growing interest is being taken in global environmental issues, little attention is being paid in Japan to meet-production and fish-harvest issues. This essay examines problems concerning the meat and fishery industries, looking at changes in production- and consumption-levels, and in what is happening with regard to such issues as the shrinking of rainforest and ecological changes.
Key word: meat production, fish harvest, meat industry, fishery, rainforest decrease, ecological changes, starvation, reckless

*Osaka Shin-Ai College, 6-2-28 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0053, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 2 (2001)

Research Conducted Regarding Japanese Attitudes Towards Vegetarianism as Compared with those of Westerners
Mitsuru Kakimoto*, Yumi Watabe and Masahide Sakyu,
Vegetarian Research Vol. 2, 23-26 (2001)

In order to make a comparison between dietary cultures in the East and the West, Japanese college students and Westerners living in Japan were asked to fill out a questionnaire. In response to gWhat do you know about the vegetarians?h, 82.6% of the Westerners chose gThey donft eat meath, while 66% of the Japanese students answered gThey eat only vegetables or fruitsh. Regarding the reasons for becoming vegetarians, more than 60% of the Western females chose ganimal rightsh, while slightly fewer than 20% of the Japanese females chose it. Asked gWhat do you think is the religion with which the vegetarians are connected?h, 57.1% of the Westerners chose Buddhism. Meanwhile, regarding the Japanese, Islam and Hinduism topped the list with over 30% each. Thus, there turned out to be a significant difference in level of awareness and knowledge of vegetarianism between Westerners and Japanese.
Keywords: vegetarian, vegetarianism, attitude, relogion, Japanese, westerner

*Osaka Shin-Ai College, 6-2-28 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0053, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 1 (2000)

A Scientific and Cultural Approach to Vegetarianisim.
Mitsuru Kakimoto*
Vegetarian Research Vol. 1, 3-10 (2000)

This paper discusses the origin of vegetarianism, the history of vegetarianism, the rise of modern vegetarianism, the foundation of the International Vegetarian Union, vegetarian diets in Japan, etc. Suggestions are discussed for classification of vegetarians and issues concerning health, nutrition, environment, food, and population, with a view to promoting vegetarianism as a lifestyle in the 2lst century.
Key words: vegetarianism, vegetarian, history and category of vegetarian, modern vegetarianism, IVU, Japanese vegetarian diets, life style

*Osaka Shin-Ai College, 2-4-30 Furuichi, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-8585, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 1 (2000)

Historical Development of Epidemiological Studies of Vegetarians.
Kenji Yamagata*
Vegetarian Research Vol. 1, 11-18 (2000)

During the last several decades epidemiological studies have proved that vegetarian diets and exercise promote health, and that smoking and diets rich in animal fat contribute to the disease process. Most of the evidence comes from health studies on Seventh-day Adventists. Based on these studies, official guidelines, such as "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2000" and "Healthy Japanese 21", place a greater emphasis on diets rich in vegetables and fruits.
Key words: vegetarian diets, Seventh-day Adventists, health study, dietary guidelines

*Kobe Adventist Hospital, 8-4-1 Arinodai, Kita-ku, Kobe 651-13, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 1 (2000)

Psychiatry and Vegetarianism
|The trial of vegetarian diet in the treatment of mental disorders|.

Hideo Suzuki*
Vegetarian Research Vol. 1, 19-24 (2000)

It seems to be widely believed that medication is the the only way to cure mental diseases, and that dietetic treatment is not effective, even if dietetics may help for some physical disorders. This belief is reflected in clinical practice. Thus while fasting is sometimes recommended for depression patients, generally it is very rare to apply dietetic treatment, let alone that of a vegetarian diet, to patients suffering from mental disorders. The author, however, has seen cases in which a vegetarian diet mainly consisting of grains is effective for treating depression or anxiety neurosis. The present paper reports on one such case of a 29-year-old male suffering from depression with a strong sense of anxiety, and considers mainly from the viewpoint of oriental medicine why this vegetarian diet is effective for treating depression or neurosis.

Key words: psychiatry, vegetarianism, vegetarian diet, vegan, depression, neurosis

*Junior College, Osaka University of Health and Sport Sciences, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0459, Japan


Vegetarian Research Vol. 1 (2000)

Animal Rights and Vegetarianism.
Shinobu Odagiri*
Vegetarian Research Vol. 1, 25-33 (2000)

It may be considered as the ethical revolution that occurred during the latter part of the 20th century when the animal liberation movement, guided by Peter Singer, happened, and@the animal rights theory proposed by Tom Regan appeared. First of all, in this paper, I will review their historical background, namely the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), the evolutionarism of Charles Darwin (1809-82) and the vegetarianism of Henry S. Salt (1851-1939). Secondly, I will criticize traditional Western thoughts based on the viewpoints of both nature and humans, that is, the destruction of nature and anthropocentrism. Finally, I will consider their contributions to the 21st century, for example, the feminist theory, the deep ecological movement, the new human rights and so on. Vegetarianism as a lifestyle for the new century, which the Japanese Society for Vegetarian Research professes, should and must push this revolutionary trend towards a new relation between humans and animals.

*Division of Social Studies, Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512, Japan

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